References

References

1. Langlois JH, Ritter JM. Casey RJ, Sawin DB. Infant attractiveness predicts maternal behaviors and attitudes. Dev Psychol 1995; 31:466-472

    • This study shows mothers of newborns with attractive faces were more affectionate and playful with their babies than were mothers of less attractive infants. In contrast, mothers of less attractive babies tended to engage in comparatively perfunctory care giving and to attend to others in the environment, rather than their own infants.
    • In addition to differential treatment, mothers of less attractive newborns expressed relatively more negative attitudes about infants being burdensome interference in parent’s lives.

2. Clifford M. Walster E. The effects of physical attractiveness on teacher expectation. Sociol Educ 1973; 46:248

    • In this study teachers were asked to estimate a child’s IQ based on photograph, report card information, and attendance records. Independent of the alternate diagnostic informations, a child’s attractiveness was found to have a medium-sized effect on estimates of IQ, and a large effect on teachers’ expectation s of his/her eventual educational attainment.

3. Zbrowiz LA. Reading faces: Window to the soul? Boulder: Westview Press, 1988

    • A study conducted by the author showed identical essays have been shown to be rated higher by teacher if attributed to more attractive rather than less attractive students.

4. Rosenthal R. Teachers’ expectancies: Determinants of pupils’ IQ gains. Psychol Rep 1966;19:115-118

  • In this study, teachers were informed that certain students had been determined to have unusual potential for a spurt in intellectual growth. In reality, the designated “bloomers” had been selected randomly. During the school year, the designated “bloomers” achieved greater academic success and significant intellectual improvement (IQ) compared to the control group.

5. White KJ, Jones K. Sherman MD. Reputation information and teacher feedback: their influences on children’s perception s of behavior problem peers. J Soc Clin Psychol 1998:17:11-37.

    • This study revels that teachers’ negative or positive expectancies and public classroom feedback about a student can directly influence student peers to have similar attitudes and beliefs.

6. Hosoda M, Stone-Romero EF, Coats G. the effects of physical attractiveness on job-related outcomes: A meta-analysis of experimental studies. Personnel Psychol 2003;56: 431-462

    • This meta-analysis reveals that attractive individuals fare better than less attractive counterparts with regard to perceived job qualifications, hiring decisions, predicted job success and compensation. Both men and women are subjected to these biases.
    • Typical study would consist of identical resume paired with photographs of individuals rated as either attractive or unattractive. Findings reveal that attractive candidates are generally perceived more positively and are recommended for better treatment.

7. Stevenage SV, McKay Y. Model applicants: The effect of facial appearance on recruitment decisions. Br J Psycholo 1999;90:2221-234

    • In an experiment on the effect of facial disfigurement (In this case a portwine stain) on personnel decisions, a combination of 59 students and 57 professional recruiters made decisions based on mock job application. Despite identical resumes, the hypothetical applicant was disadvantaged in the disfigured condition compared to the non-disfigured condition. In the disfigured condition, she received lower ratings on personal qualities and job skills by both groups, and was less likely to be hired by the student group.



8. Frieze IH. Olson JE. Russel J. Attractiveness and income for men and women in management. J Applied soc Psychol 1991;21:1039-1057.

    • Association of attractiveness and biased treatment has been show to occur in actual practice in workplace. In this large scale study of male and female MBA graduates form large Middle Atlantic university found facial attractiveness correlated with higher starting salaries for the males. Attractiveness was also positively correlated with subsequent salaries for both men and women, followed for 10 years after completing their MBAs. For women, each point on a five-point attractiveness scale was associated with a $2150 per year (1983) salary difference. For men, each point was worth an average of $2600. Over time, the difference in salary for someone in the highest attractiveness category compared to someone in the lowest was approximately $10,000 per year.

9. Shaw WC. O’Brien KD. Richmond S. Brook P. Quality control in orthodontics: Risk/benefit considerations. Br Dental J 1991;170:33-37.

    • Shaw et al discussed the psycho-social benefit of orthodontic treatment in terms of three subgroups. First they looked at “nicknames and teasing” and stated that the contribution of orthodontic treatment should not be underestimated where conspicuous dentofacial deviation has attracted the hurtful mockery of peers. Second they evaluated “Dental appearance and social attractiveness” and found that faces displaying a range of dental conditions affected the perception of social characteristics, such as perceived friendliness, social class, popularity, and intelligence. Third they discussed “self-esteem and popularity” and found an association between dental attractiveness and self-esteem and other factors. They concluded, “When personal dissatisfaction with dental appearance is felt in childhood, it might well remain for lifetime.”

10. O’Brien K. Wright J. Conboy F. et al. Effectiveness of early orthodontic treatment with the twin-block appliance: A multicenter, randomized, controlled trial. Part 2: Psychosocial effects: Am J Orthod dental Orthop 2003; 124:5.

    • In this study, sample of 174 children aged 8-10 years with class II, Division I malocclusion was randomly allocated to a treatment group receiving twin-block appliances or to an untreated control group. They found that class II correction resulted in increase in self-concept and a “reduction of negative social experiences.”

11. O’Brien K. Macfarlane T. Wright J. Conboy, F. et al. Early treatment for Class II malocclusion and perceived improvement in facial profile Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop 2009;135:580-5

    • In this study, silhouetted profile of 20 treated patients and 20 untreated controls randomly selected form 174 subjects were assessed by 30 children (age 8-10) and 24 teaching staff using a 5 point scale. Early orthodontic treatment resulted in improved perceptions of facial profile attractiveness. Profile silhouettes of children who had received early orthodontic treatment for Class II malocclusion were perceived to be more attractive by peers than those of children who did not receive treatment.

12. Hassebrauck M. The visual process method: A new method to study physical attractiveness. Evolution Hum Behav 1998;19:111-123.

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